Further funding is set to be approved across the county following the confirmation of the £275,000 council award.
Among the successful schemes are new safety barriers at Bedlam Bridge in Fenland, with speed reduction and traffic calming measures; parking restrictions and safety improvements near schools, planned elsewhere.
Other schemes given the go-ahead include new footways and pedestrian crossings, dropped kerbs to help people with disabilities and junction improvements.
County Council Cabinet Member for Highways and Access, Tony Orgee, said: “I am delighted that the county council has been able to find the money from its very stretched resources to meet the cost of these improvement schemes which will benefit the whole of Cambridgeshire.
"This has been a truly partnership project which has involved ideas from local people who know their community best, coming forward for consideration by the county council and those ideas have also been backed by a financial commitment from the community.
“I am particularly pleased that we have been able to provide the additional funding required to allow the installation of a safety barrier at Bedlam Bridge to proceed.
"The Fenland Road Safety Campaign has campaigned hard for these improvements and has offered a significant contribution towards the cost of the scheme as a result of its fund raising work and it is good news that we have been able to support its bid."